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Manage annotations

Introduction

The annotation process allows you to define how your concepts should be triggered by the rules generated with the extraction mode selected in the Resources tab, Extraction configuration panel.

The annotation methodology is different between categorization and extraction tasks. In categorization projects, you annotate the entire document with expected categories. In extraction projects, you annotate relevant portions of text to extract.

The annotations are created and modified in the detail view and the context view of the Documents tab.

The views of the Documents tab

The Documents tab has the following views:

  • The list view, which displays the list of the documents. This is the default view.
  • The detail view, which shows a simplified list on the left and the detail of a specific document in the middle.
  • The context view, which shows the phrasal context of annotations and extractions.

Open a document from the list view

To switch from the list view to the detail view:

  • Double-click a document in the list.

Or:

  • Select a document in the list and then View document view at the top left of the documents list.

Or:

  • Select the file name.

Note

You can also open a document in detail view from the Documents Preview panel in the Resources tab

Change document in the detail view

To change the current document in detail view:

  • Select the document in the left panel.

Or:

  • Use the Next document next and the Previous document prev located at the top of the document detail panel.

Switch from detail view to list view

To switch from the detail view to the list view, select Browse documents browse from the left panel.

The basic way to create annotations

You can annotate in the detail view. To annotate a portion of text:

  1. Select the portion of text to be annotated: a pop-up menu appears.
  2. Select the annotation type.

You can select:

  • Annotate as...
  • Create concept
  • Create label

Annotate as

Annotate as displays a window with which a concept can be annotated and added as Alternative label or Hidden label.

If View in resources after annotation is checked, the Resources tab will be displayed and the concept context will be focused.

Create concept

Create concept displays a window with which you can create a new concept, organize it in the taxonomy, and annotate it by selecting the toggle button Annotate concept.

If View in resources after annotation is checked, the Resources tab will be displayed and the concept context will be focused.

Note

You can create a concept also from the right panel, in the Entities or Tokens tab.

  1. Select or hover over the single occurrence of an entity or a token.
  2. Select Add new concept.

Create label

Create label displays a window with which you can add a concept as Alternative label or Hidden label.

If View in resources after annotation is checked, the Resources tab will be displayed and the concept context will be focused.

Note

  • Each time you annotate, delete an annotation, validate a document or remove the validation, a last activity notification appears at the bottom of the text.

  • When co-working on a single text, select Refresh each time a cooperator makes an action on a text you're working on.

Annotate an entity or a token

To annotate an occurrence of an entity or token:

  1. Use the right panel to highlight occurrences of entities and/or tokens in the text, as you do for corpora.
  2. Select the single occurrence of an entity or a token.
  3. In the text select the related chip to be annotated: a pop-up menu appears.
  4. Select the annotation type.

Note

To make the highlighted occurrences disappear:

  • Deselect the occurrences.

Or:

  • Select the X button .

You can select:

  • Annotate as...
  • Create concept
  • Create label

Annotations are listed also in the Thesaurus tab.

Annotation tag

An annotation tag consists of two components:

  • The type indicator, located on the left part.

  • The colored border: each annotation tag is outlined by a different colored border. The color of the outline on the right represents the quality of the experimental outcome:

    • Indigo = FN (False Negative).
    • Green = TP (True Positive).
    • Orange = FP (False Positive).

Prior to the running of an experiment, all automatically recognized concepts are outlined in indigo (purplish blue). Indigo indicates the annotation is a false negative, because it does not—or does not yet—pertain to an extraction.

After an experiment is run, annotations can take one of two colors: green and orange. A green outline indicates a true positive, meanwhile an orange outline indicates a false positive, that is a result that was not annotated but needs confirmation.

Annotate an extraction

To annotate an extraction in detail view, which means confirming that the prediction is correct:

  • Select Annotate from the pop-up toolbar.

    The colored dot in the toolbar turns from orange to green.

Or, to annotate all extractions of a concept:

  1. Select the concept from the Thesaurus tab (multiple selection with single-click is allowed).
  2. Select Annotate selected items .

Note

  • Select Select all to select all the concepts from the Thesaurus tab.
  • Select Deselect all to deselect all the concepts from the Thesaurus tab.

Note

If you select a single concept, the Select all icon will change to this: . Click it to select all concepts.

Remove annotations

To remove an annotation from the text in the detail view, select the annotation and choose Remove from the pop-up toolbar.

To remove all annotations of a concept:

  1. Select the concept from the Thesaurus tab (multiple selection with single-click is allowed).
  2. Select Remove selected annotations .

Replace an annotation concept

To change the concept of an annotation:

  1. Select the annotation in the text, then choose Replace from the pop-up toolbar.

  2. In the pop-up menu, select the new concept.

Show annotated or extracted concepts in the resources

To show an annotated concept in the Resources tab:

  • Select Show resources from the pop-up toolbar.

Or:

  • Hover over the concept from the Thesaurus tab on the right and select Show in resources .

Or:

  • Select the concept from the Thesaurus tab on the right and select Show in resources .

Show information about an annotated or extracted concept

To show information about an annotated concept:

  • Select Show info from the pop-up toolbar.

Or:

  • Hover over the concept from the Thesaurus tab on the right and select Show information .

Or:

  • Select the concept from the Thesaurus tab on the right and select Show information .

Information regarding the annotated concept, such as broader concept, preferred label and alternative label, is displayed in a pop-up window.

Validate the document

Validating a document means confirming that the annotations or the extractions are satisfactory. It is also possible to validate a document that doesn't have any annotations. In this case, it is considered as a 'negative' example.

To validate a document, select Validate this document .

To remove the validation, select Remove validation from this document .

Context view

The context view shows phrasal contexts of extractions and annotations.

To switch to the context view, when in list view only:

  1. Select Show context view .
  2. Check annotations from the Annotations list or extractions from the Extractions list.

Or:

  • Select an annotation from the Annotations list or an extraction from the Extractions list and select Context view .

Or:

  • Hover over an annotation from the Annotations list or an extraction from the Extractions list and select Context view .

The checked concepts boxes are visible in the Context drop-down menu with their chips and the filtered list of documents in the middle panel.

  • Select Show all documents to show all documents.

  • To uncheck an annotation or an extraction:

    • Uncheck its concept box.

    Or:

    • Select the X beside the annotation or the extraction in the Context drop-down menu.
  • To delete an annotation or an extraction:

    • Hover over it and select the trash can icon .

    Or:

    • Select it and click the trash can icon .
  • To confirm an annotation or an extraction:

    • Hover over it and select the annotation icon .

    Or:

    • Select it and select the annotation icon .
  • To confirm all annotations or extractions, select the annotation icon beside the document title.

  • Select the document title to open it in detail view.

  • Select Validate this document to validate the document.

  • Select Remove validation from this document to remove the validation from the document.

Note

When an exclamation mark appears when in detail or context view, refresh the page.